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Effects of ethanol extract of cocoa (theobroma cacao) pod on normal and monosodium glutamate-intoxicated rats’ hepatic histo-morphology, serum bio-functional parameters and serum antioxidant activities

Author Name(s)

Obidike, Ikechukwu Johnlouis and Egbuonu, Anthony Cemaluk

Abstract

Improving the use of food wastes could reduce the attendant environmental burden – related health implications, but requires scientific basis. Thus, this study investigated some effects of ethanol extract of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) pod on normal and monosodium glutamate-intoxicated rats’ hepatic histo-morphology, serum bio-functional parameters and serum antioxidant activities using standard protocols. Following daily oral exposure of rats to cocoa pod extract (CPE) and monosodium glutamate (MSG) either alone or co-treated CPE for 14 days, changes in the rats’ liver histopathology, serum bio-indicators and serum antioxidant enzymes were assayed using standard protocols. Data were analysed by one-way ANOVA using SPSS version 22. Serum chemistry result showed a significant (p<0.05) % decrease (-44.98%, -33.04% and -31.33%) in AST activity of co-treated groups relative to MSG group. This trend was followed through ALT, ALP, total bilirubin and in the computed ratios (ALT:AST, AST:ALP and ALT:ALP). Interestingly, the trend followed through in the antioxidant enzyme CAT and in GSH while the SOD remained within comparable range as compared to MSG group. The histopathological examination of the liver indicated normal blood flow without congestion in the normal and CPE group in contrast to full congestion of the central vein as seen in the MSG group. Consequently, reduced congestion as seen in the co-treated groups seemingly confirmed the serum chemistry results as against MSG group suggesting ameriolative effects. Hence, this study showed ameriolative effects of CPE on the histo-morphology, serum bio-functional indicators and antioxidant activities of MSG-intoxicated rats

 Keywords

Monosodium glutamate, agricultural waste, cocoa pod, liver enzymes, serum antioxidant.